Scout Project

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Scout Project
Scout Launch

Center: Langley Research Center
Location: Hampton, Virginia
Year Built: 1960
Historic Eligibility:
Important Tests:

Back Arrow.jpg Programs and Projects Back Arrow.jpg Langley Archives Collection


[top] History

Called the “the unsung hero of space” because it set a standard for reliability, simplicity, and economy, the relatively small rocket known as “Scout” was conceived and developed at Langley. Although not widely known, Scout developed into “one of the finest pieces of technology in the history of space exploration, and became a “very reliable, consistent, performing warhorse.” Scout provided access to space for more than 30 years and was one of the few programs “born of the spaceflight revolution [that] survived the spaceflight revolution.”

Scout, an acronym for Solid Controlled Orbital Utility Test system, was a four-stage, solid-fuel rocket capable of orbiting, sounding, and reentry flights with a large variety of payloads. It had three types of missions: placing small satellites in orbit; high-velocity reentry studies and testing of heat-resistant materials; and launching high-altitude and space probes. The original Scout was only 72 feet high and weighed only 37,000 pounds, while the total thrust of its four stages was just under 200,000 pounds.

In 1956, Langley engineers in the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD) conceived this solid fuel launch vehicle as a means of putting light payloads into orbit. Technologically, it built upon the hypersonic solid-fuel rocket technologies that they had been developing at Wallops Island and Langley since the early 1950s. Initially ignored in favor of larger liquid-fueled rockets, Scout was authorized in May 1958 in direct response to Sputnik. PARD rocketeers planned to assemble an economical stack of rocket motors for its four-stage booster from off-the-shelf hardware developed for military ballistic missiles. Langley finalized the design by early 1959, and launched the first experimental Scout from Wallops Island in April 1960. Initially managed by PARD, Scout was transferred to the Space Task Group after its creation in 1958, and then to the Scout Project Group in February 1960. This became the first large NASA project that the LaRC ran “in-house.”

Most of the early Scout launches were failures, and a comprehensive investigation of the program in 1963 included a three-month moratorium on the launch schedule. The first launch after recertification of the rocket occurred in December 1963, after which Scout’s performance was remarkable, with an overall success rate of 96 percent over a total of 113 launches. In addition to its launch reliability, Scout payloads were critical in the advancement of atmospheric and space science. Early Scout missions helped researchers study the density of the atmosphere at various altitudes, the properties of the Van Allen radiation belts, and the possible dangers of the micrometeoroid environment on spacecraft. Scouts in the 1970s tested Einstein’s theory of relativity by carrying an extremely accurate atomic clock in space, and they also helped to confirm the theory of the “black hole.” Scouts also launched a number of satellites, including 23 for foreign countries. The series launched for the Center for Italian Aerospace Research gathered “valuable data about the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, about galactic sources of radiation and X-rays, and especially about the nature of the earth’s atmosphere in the region of the equator.”

Scout proved critical in the context of the NASA’s early space program by providing important data on reentry dynamics. NASA researchers learned much about what materials best withstood the heat of reentry, allowing for the subsequent successes of Project Mercury, Project Gemini, and the Apollo Program.

Most of the above information was obtained from NASA SP-4308 "Spaceflight Revolution" by James Hansen.

[top] Associated Buildings

The following key buildings were associated with the Scout Project:

Building 640 - The 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel has frequently been referred to as Dick Whitcomb's tunnel. The tunnel was best known for testing laminar flow. It was demolished in 2011.

Building 641 - The 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel was the Scout Project Headquarters after 1984. The building was a National Historic Landmark through 2014 when it was delisted as a result of the demolition of the tunnel circuit. The tunnel test section and office building remain and are used by Langley Air Force Base.

Building 646 - the Free-Spinning Tunnel

Building 1146 - the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel tested a control rocket for the NASA Scout vehicle in 1958. The tunnel was again used in 1962 to test the Angle of Attack Indicator.

Building 1192E - Building 1192E was constructed in 1972 as the Scout Project Office. The Scout Project was divided into two functional areas. The first included the manufacture, checkout, and launch of vehicles, together with the associated support services. The second area was comprised of the studies, modifications, and improvements associated with Scout vehicles, ground support equipment, and standard operating procedures. Facility 1192E was vacated by Scout Project Office in 1984 when they relocated to 641.

Building 1234 - The Jet Exit Facility tested the Holt Scout Motor in 1961

Building 1251 - The Unitary Tunnel was used for testing from 1959 through 1970.

Building 1275 - The Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel was used for testing micrometeoroid satellites from 1960 through 1961.

Unitary Tunnel

[top] Photos

[top] Launch Site

From a publicity release: The Scout launch vehicle is a multi-stage, guided booster using four solid propellant rocket motors capable of carrying payloads of varying sizes on orbital, space probe or reentry missions. Developed by the Langley Research Center, Scout is currently the only operational solid propellant launch vehicle with orbital experience. The following satellites have been launched by the Scout vehicle: Explorer IX and XIX, micrometeoroid satellites used to gain first hand knowledge of the puncture hazard to spacecraft from micrometeoroids; and the second British scientific satellite, Ariel II.

Scout is approximately 72 feet long and weighs approximately 40,000 pounds at lift-off. Scout is capable of placing a 240 pound payload into a 300 mile orbit or carrying a 100 pound scientific package approximately 7,000 mile away from Earth. Launching site are operational on both coasts of the Untied States for either polar or east-west orbital launches.

1960 Scout Rocket Assembly (S-3)L-59-8333.jpgL-60-1188.jpgL-60-1601.jpgL-60-124.jpgL-64-3395.jpgL-60-501.jpgL-60-2395.jpgScout ST-1.jpgL-60-7626.jpg1974-L-02498.jpg1974-L-02507.jpg1974-L-02508.jpg1974-L-02509.jpg1974-L-02510.jpg1974-L-02511.jpg1974-L-02512.jpg1974-L-02513.jpg

[top] Launches

ScoutProgress.jpgST-1, 07-01-1960  MoreST-2, 10-04-1960ST-3, 12-14-1960ST-4, 02-16-1961 MoreST-5, 06-30-1961 MoreST-6, 08-25-1961ST-7. 10-19-1961 MoreST-8, 03-01-1962ST-9, 03-29-1962ST-55, 06-30-1961 MoreS-110, 07-20-1963S-113, 06-28-1963S-114, 08-31-1962S-115, 12-16-1962S-116, 05-22-1963S-122, 12-19-1963S-123, 10-09-1964S-127, 03-27-1964S-124, 07-20-1964S-129, 08-18-1964S-131, 08-10-1965S-133, 11-06-1964S-134, 08-25-1964S-135, 11-21-1964S-136, 04-29-1965S-137, 12-15-1964S-138, 11-18-1965S-139, 12-06-1965S-141, 02-09-1966S-144, 06-20-1971S-147, 06-09-1966S-152, 05-29-1967S-153, 04-26-1967S-159, 10-19-1967S-160, 03-05-1968S-164, 04-26-1968S-165, 08-08-1968S-166, 09-20-1971S-167, 10-03-1968S-168, 08-22-1968S-171, 09-30-1970S-172, 10-01-1969S-173, 04-24-1971S-174, 11-09-1970S-177, 07-08-1971S-180, 08-16-1971S-181, 12-16-1972S-184, 08-13-1972S-185, 11-21-1972S-186, 0-71-61974S-187, 10-15-1974S-188, 03-08-1974S-189, 08-30-1974S-191, 06-03-1974S-193, 06-18-1976S-196, 12-05-1975S-197, 05-22-1976S-198, 06-02-1979 MoreS-199, 11-13-1986 (VAFB photo)S-201, 04-26-1978S-202, 02-18-1979S-203, 10-30-1979S-204, 09-16-1987 (VAFB photo)S-205, 06-27-1983S-206, 03-25-1988S-207, 12-12-1985S-208, 10-11-1984S-209, 08-02-1985S-211, 04-26-1988S-212, 05-09-1990S-213, 06-16-1988 (VAFB photo)S-214, 08-25-1988

[top] Scout Project Office


[top] Banquet

July 27, 1979

L-79-5460.jpgL-79-5460 1.jpgL-79-5460 2.jpgMore

[top] Salute to Scout

Ceremony, February 1, 1991


[top] Scout Project Office Correspondence, 1959-1972

Congratulatory Letter from Oran W. Nicks, Deputy Director, to Ronald D. English on the "Success of the Scout Project", December 22, 1972.

Congratulatory Note from M. Green, Vice President - Programs and L. M. Weeks, Vice President - General Manager, Vought Missiles and Space Company, LTV Aerospace Corporation, to Mr. E. M. Cortright, Director, NASA Langley Research Center on Success of Scout Launch Operations, December 21, 1972.

Letter from E. C. Oosterom, Program Manager, Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Elkton Division, to Mr. T. W. Shelhimer, Purchasing Agent - Rocket Motors, Hampton Technical Center, Division, Vought Missiles & Space Company regarding "Publicity Release for Altair III Scout Rocket Motor", December 21, 1972.

Congratulatory Letter from Edgar M. Cortright, Director, NASA Langley Research Center, to Mr. R. D. English, Head, Scout Project Office, on the 26th consecutive successful launch of the Scout Launch Vehicle, November 16, 1972.

Statement of Work. Scout Program: Phase VI and VII Systems Management and Phase VII Hardware Procurement. September 29, 1969.

Reply to Query. Regarding problem on launch of Scout vehicle Explorer XXXVII. March 28, 1968.

Correspondence from Head, Scout Project Office (Eugene Schult) to Scout Assistant Director E. C. Draley regarding Scout Systems Evaluation Vehicle (SEV), September 22, 1964.

Announcement No. 55-64, "Success of Scout Reentry Heating Experiment", August 31, 1964.]]

Congratulation Correspondence from Raymond L. Bisplinghoff, NASA Associate Administrator for Advanced Research and Technology, to various NASA LaRC officials regarding the success of the Scout Reentry Heating Experiment, August 24, 1964.

Letter from Charles J. Donlan, Acting Director, NASA Langley, to NASA, Code S, Dr. Homer E. Newell regarding "Review of Scout Vehicle 128 Failure", July 14, 1964.

Letter from Edgar M. Cortright to AA/Associate Administrator and SD/Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Science & Applications regarding "Preliminary Report on Scout Vehicle 128 Failure", July 1, 1964.

Memorandum from Chariman, ad hoc Scout Design, Environment and Quality Control Review Committee, to Director, NASA Langley Research Center regarding "Committee report", June 26, 1964.

Letter from the Director of NASA Wallops Station, Robert L. Krieger, to Floyd L. Thompson, Director, NASA Langley Research Center regarding "Scout vehicle assembly and checkout procedures", June 22, 1964.

Correspondence from A. Guastaferro, Head, Resident Engineering, Management Office at LTV, to Sherwood L. Butler, Contracting Officer regarding "Transmittal of draft of letter to BWR Dallas", June 10, 1964.

Letter from Eugene D. Schult, Head, Scout Project Office to Mr. Rufus Rouse regarding "Scout Project Office Overtime", April 9, 1964.

DOD SLV-1A (Scout) Program Funding Summary Correspondence from USAF SSVBO/Capt Browning/643-3358 to NASA HQ, March 17, 1964.

Letter from NASA Langley Director Floyd L. Thompson to Mr. Milton Green, Astro Division, Chance Vought Corporation regarding "Preliminary agenda for Scout Design, Environment and Quality Control Review", March 6, 1964.

Memo from E. Barton Geer, Chairman, ad hoc Scout Design, Environment, and Quality Control Review Committee to Director, Langley Research Center regarding "ad hoc Scout Design Environment, and Quality Control Review Committee, February 14, 1964.

Memo from Eugene D. Schult, Head, Scout Project Office for Director, Langley Research Center regarding "Current Scout Program Status", January 10, 1964.

Correspondence regarding transmittal of memorandum by Scout 110 Review Committee, December 10, 1963, concerning final report on review of Scout 110 launch difficulties from NASA Langley to NASA HQ, December 11, 1963.

Congratulatory Note from Homer E. Newell, Director of Space Sciences, to Floyd L. Thompson, Director, Langley Research Center, regarding the successful launch of Scout 9 on March 29, April 5, 1962.

Commendation letter from Don R. Ostrander, Major General, USAF, Director, Launch Vehicle Programs, to Mr. Floyd L. Thompson, Langley Research Center, regarding successful launch of Scout 4, February 24, 1961.

Memorandum from William E. Stoney, Jr., Head, Scout Project Group, to Associate Director, "Scout progress to June 27", June 27, 1960.

Memorandum from William E. Stoney, Jr., Head, Scout Project Group, to Associate Director, "Scout progress to April 22", April 22, 1960.

"Status of Cooperative Projects at LRC: Scout Vehicle", NASA Langley, April 19, 1960.

Memorandum from William E. Stoney, Jr., Head, Scout Project Group, to Associate Director, "Scout - Progress to March 4 (Friday)", March 7, 1960.

Memorandum from H.J.E. Reid, NASA Langley Director, to All Concerned, "Establishment of Scout Project Group", February 29, 1960.

Administrator's Progress Report: Launch Vehicle Programs, Scout, Elliot Mitchell, Project Officer, January 31, 1960.

Letter from H. J. E. Reid, Director, NASA Langley, to NASA Code R, "Acceleration of Scout Program to ensure earliest possible firing and to make possible subsequent firings at intervals of not over 2 months", January 29, 1960.

Memorandum from William E. Stoney, Jr. and Edwin C. Kilgore to Associate Director, "Outline of steps required to ensure an earliest possible firing of the Scout and those required to make possible subsequent firings at intervals of not over 2 months", January 28, 1960.

Memorandum from Warren J. North, Program Chief, Manned Satellite and Scout, to NASA Administrator, "Status Report No. 2 - Scout", March 31, 1959.

Memorandum from Warren J. North, Program Chief, Manned Satellite and Scout, to NASA Administrator, "Status Report No. 1 - Scout", March 3, 1959.

Memorandum for Review Board, "Attitude Control System for the Scout", December 2, 1958.

[top] NASA Documents, Articles, and Clippings

Originals of all newspaper clippings accessible at NASA Langley Archives.

"Specifications for Design, Fabrication, and Assembly of the Scout Orbital Research Vehicles, Launcher, and Work Tower", NASA Langley Research Center, April 15, 1959.

"Scout Launch Vehicle Assignments", pp. 2-5.

Early Scout Presentation.

(Paper) "Scout Vehicle Development Flight (Micrometeoroid Satellite Experiment)".

NASA News Release No. 60-310, "Scout Vehicle Development Flight (Air Density-Drag Measurements Experiment)", 1960.

NASA News Release No. 60-310, Press Kit Supplement No. 1, "Scientific Background and Experiment Description".

NASA News Release No. 60-310, Press Kit Supplement No. 2, "Scout Research Vehicle".

NASA News Release No. 60-310, Press Kit Supplement No. 3, "Inflatable Spherical Satellites".

NASA News Release No. 60-310, Press Kit Supplement No. 4, "Scout Instrumentation Systems".

NASA News Release No. 60-310, Press Kit Supplement No. 5, "Robert L. Krieger, Chief, Wallops Station, Virginia".

NASA News Release No. 60-310, Press Kit Supplement No. 7, "Personnel - Launch Vehicle and Satellite".

NASA News Release No. 60-310, Press Kit Supplement No. 8, "Air Density - Drag Measurements Satellite (S-56) - Sequence of Events".

"Obtain Valuable Data in First Scout Launching", Air Scoop, July 8, 1960.

NASA Scout Press Kit, November 28, 1960.

"Plans for First British Satellite Experiment Using Scout" Joint UK-NASA News Release, December 16, 1960.

"Scout Research Vehicle" NASA News Release, 1961.

"Inflatable Spherical Satellites" NASA News Release, 1961.

NASA S-56 Information Plan, February 1961.

Explorer IX NASA Press Release, February 17, 1961.

"Scout Vehicle Development Flight" NASA Press Release, 1961.

"Air Density-Drag Measurements Satellite (S-56) - Sequence of Events" NASA Press Release, 1961.

"NASA to Launch 12-Foot Sphere with All-Solid Scout" NASA News Release, February 13, 1961.

Thanks Memorandum from William E. Stoney, Jr. (Former Scout Project Head) to Scout Project Personnel, NASA Langley, June 14, 1961.

NASA Information Plan for the Micrometeoroid Satellite (S-55), June 20, 1961.

NASA LaRC, LAFB, VA News Release, "Eighth Scout Development Flight and Reentry Project to Study Aerodynamic Heating".

"Scout Development Flight to Study Aerodynamic Heating", Space News Roundup!, Vol. 1, No. 9, Manned Spacecraft Center, LAFB, VA, February 21, 1962.

"Scout Welcomed as Operational Space Vehicle; Langley Praised for Exceptional Performance", Air Scoop, April 13, 1962, Vol. 21, Issue 15.

NASA Security Classification Guide: Project Scout, SCG-4, NASA HQ, May 1, 1962.

NASA HQ Report for Institute of Naval Studies (Drs. W. Dollay and R. Summers): "The Scout Vehicle", May 15, 1962.

"Life at Langley Research Center", Langley Researcher, Dec. 21, 1962, p. 8.

"NASA to Launch Second U.S./U.K. Satellite", NASA HQ News Release No: 64-56, March 18, 1964.

Wallops Station Site Map, NASA.

"Explorer IX Reenters Atmosphere and Burns", Langley Researcher, April 24, 1964.

"NASA Scout Vehicle Air Lifted", Langley Researcher, June 19, 1964.

Scout Launch Set-up Photos, Langley Researcher, August 28, 1964.

"Reentry Heating Experiment Launched on Scout Vehicle", Langley Researcher, August 28, 1964.

Going-Away Party for Allan Churgin and David Edmondson Scrapbook Page, August 31, 1964.

"Scout Reentry Heating Experiment Launch", Langley Researcher, September 11, 1964.

"Scout Satellite Launcher Theme of Space Exposition", The Astrogram, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, Vol. VII, Number 1, October 21, 1964.

"Meteoroid Detection Satellite Launched By NASA from Wallops", Langley Researcher, November 20, 1964.

"Two Satellites Launched by One Scout Vehicle", Langley Researcher, December 4, 1964.

"NASA to Negotiate with LTV for 12 Scout Launch Vehicles", Langley Researcher, November 19, 1965.

"Staff Members Visit Pope", Langley Researcher, January 28, 1966.

"Scout Reentry Test at Wallops Provides Data on Heat Shield", Langley Researcher, February 25, 1966.

"A new addition to the Aerospace Park on Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, is a NASA Scout launch vehicle", Langley Researcher, April 8, 1966.

"Angelo Gustaferro Named Head of Western Test Range Office", Langley Researcher, July 15, 1966.

"San Marco Launch Slated For Early 1967", Goddard News, November 14, 1966, p. 4.

"French Satellite Marks First Birthday December 6", Goddard News, November 28, 1966, p. 8.

News Release 69-126. Contract Awarded for Improved Scout. August 26, 1969.

"Scout Sets Launch Vehicle Record", NASA LaRC News Release No. 72-23, 1972.

"Program of Dedication: Scout Project Office Building 1192 E", Langley Research Center, March 10, 1972.

Programmed message received at a push of a button on the WANG in Keynton's office at dedication, March 10, 1972.

"Air Density Project Contract Awarded", Langley Researcher, August 18, 1972.

"And Yet Another One...", Langley Researcher, No Date.

"Scout May Set New Record", Langley Researcher, November 24, 1972.

Scout 13th Anniversary Celebration Agenda, NASA Langley Research Center, Langley Officer's Club, July 14, 1973.

Langley Research Center (Input), "NASA Activities: 15th Anniversary, 1958-1973", Vol. 4, No. 9, September 15, 1973.

"Celebration of 100 Scout Launches, 1960-1979" Banquet Itinerary, July 27, 1979.

NASA Project Approval Document: Research and Development Hardware Development/Flight, June 10, 1981.

Scout Xa Schematic.

Chapter 7 - Learning Through Failure: The Early Rush of the Scout Rocket Program

NASA Fact Sheet

[top] Outside Documents, Articles, and Clippings

Originals of newspaper clippings only available at NASA Langley Archives.

Report to the Congress from the President of the United States, United States Aeronautics and Space Activities 1961, Scout Input.

Memo from US Navy's Arleigh Burke to NASA HQ congratulating NASA on success of Scout, Feb. 18, 1961.

Commendation Letter from USAF Maj. Gen. Don R. Ostrander (Director, Launch Vehicle Programs) to Floyd L. Thompson (Director, NASA Langley) regarding performance and conduct of NASA LaRC Scout Personnel, Feb. 24, 1961.

"As secondary mission...S-55 Hitchhikes on Scout 5 Solid Booster" missiles and rockets, July 3, 1961, p. 14.

"How to Keep a Rocket Ready", Av. Week, Feb. 5, 1962.

"New Stages Hiking Scout Payload Over 1/3", missiles and rockets, February 12, 1962.

"Wallops Fires Rocket to Test Reentry Speed", The Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, Thurs., March 1, 1962.

"Scout Probe is Scheduled at Wallops", The Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, Tues., March 27, 1962, Section 2, p. 11.

"Scout is Fired Successfully at Wallops Island", Biggins, Virginia, The Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, Thurs., March 29, 1962, Section 2, p. 17.

"Space-Age Punch on Wallops Island", Long, John. The New York Times, Sunday, May 6, 1962.

"Scout Shot Planned at Wallops", The Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, Thurs., Aug. 16, 1962, Section 2, p. 13.

"Wallops To Orbit Italian Satellite", The Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, Sat., Sept. 8, 1962, Section 2, p. 9.

"Launching Due Wednesday: Space Dust Hunted from NASA", Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, Mon., Dec. 10, 1962.

"Explorer 16 Aloft To Eye Space Debris", Daily Press, Newport News-Hampton, VA, Mon., Dec. 17, 1962, Vol. 67, No. 542.

"Explorer XVI, New Satellite, Whirls In Orbit", The Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, Mon., Dec. 17, 1962, Vol. 68, No. 292.

"Rocket's 'Skywriting'", Los Angeles Times, Wed. Morning, Dec. 19, 1962, Part One.

"Transit 5A Satellite Will Aid Mariners", Ledger-Star, Wed., Dec. 19, 1962, p. 3.

"Langley Rocket Firing Delays" (three articles, Newport News, VA newspapers).

"Dazzling Rocket Launch Seen All Along Coast", article from unknown newspaper.

"Wallops Lists $1.5 Million In Contracts", The Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, January 4, 1963, Section 2, p. 15.

"NASA Proposes Laser Track Satellite" and "NASA And AEC Shots Slated At Wallops", Times-Herald, Newport News, VA, Thurs., April 11, 1963.

"Wallops: Prelude to", Ledger-Star.

"Canaveral", The Ledger-Star, Tues., March 5, 1963, p. 11.

"Grandstand-Innovation For Rocket Fans", source unknown.

"Ed Matthews and Jim Layton Examine The Business End of a Scout Second Stage", source unknown.

"Engineers Seem to Get Blame, Scientists Credit", source unknown.

"Scout Project Head Retires At Langley", source unknown.

"Our Space Age" and "Crowd At Launch Puzzles Wallops", Times-Herald, Newport News, Va., Wed., June 12, 1963 Times-Herald, Newport News, Va., June 28, 1963.

"Scout Shot Veers Off, Destroyed", source unknown and "Satellite Launching Unnoticed", Richmond Times-Dispatch, July 6, 1963.

"From Wallops: Rocket To Launch Heat Shield In Langley Test", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Wednesday, July 17, 1963, p. 3.

"Satellite To Be Launched Aug. 15 To Probe Curious Ionosphere", by Ralph Dighton, Associated Press Science Writer, AP, source unknown.

"Powerful Forces Detected", Orndorff, Beverly, Richmond Times-Dispatch, Sunday, Aug. 4, 1963.

"Satellite to Look At Radio Mirror", Dighton, Ralph, The Virginian-Pilot, Sunday, Aug. 4, 1963.

"Satellite to Look At Radio Mirror", Dighton, Ralph, The Virginian-Pilot, Sunday, Aug. 4, 1963 Continued.

"NASA To Orbit 2 Explorer Satellites In Radiation Test", Daily Press, Wednesday, August 7, 1963.

"Flow of Useful Data Ceases from Battered Explorer XVI", Daily Press, Sunday, Sept. 15, 1963.

"Scout Is Product Of NASA's Five Years At Langley", Newport News-Hampton, VA., Sunday, Nov. 3, 1963, source unknown.

"Space Vehicles", missiles and rockets, November 4, 1963.

"Wallops Lists Contract Awards" and "W&M Is Given $400,000 For NASA Studies", The Times-Herald, Friday, Dec. 6, 1963.

"Thompson Tells HI Alumni Of New Era Of Technology" and "New Responsibility For Floyd Thompson", Daily Press, Sunday, Dec. 8, 1963.

"Point of View", by Virginia Biggins, unknown source.

"NASA To Launch Langley Built Satellite Thursday", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Tues., Dec. 17, 1963, p. 3.

"Good Scout Great Shot", by Dick Shearin, Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc. Newsletter.

Langley Research Center Scout Project Officials, source unknown.

"Langley Built Satellite May Fail To Orbit" and "'Christmas Star' Goes Into Orbit", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Fri., Dec. 20, 1963, The Times-Herald, Friday, Dec. 20, 1963.

"Scout Project Talk Given Ruritan Club", Daily Press, Thurs., Jan. 11, 1964.

"NASA to Launch SERT I Spacecraft from Wallops" and "A Scout Rocket", Langley Researcher, July 17, 1964 and Times-Herald, August 25, 1964.

"2 Electrical Space Engines Pass Test at Wallops Isle", Unknown Source, July 20, 1964.

"Center's Scout Rocket Has Role in 9-Nation Test", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Wed., July 22, 1964.

"Reentry Heat Test Slated at Wallops" and "NASA Fires Heat Test Rocket Shot", Times-Herald, Newport News, Tues., Aug. 11, 1964 and The Times-Herald, Newport News, Virginia, Tuesday, Aug. 18, 1964.

"Re-Entry Heat Experiment Set from Wallops", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Wed., Aug. 12, 1964.

"Evaluation of Reentry Data Begins", Daily Press, August 19, 1964.

"Langley Built Satellite Slated For Polar Orbit", source unknown, Newport News, Virginia, Tuesday Morning, September 22, 1964.

"Atomic Battery Model Is Fired At Wallops Isle", The Times-Herald, Newport News, Virginia, Friday, Oct. 9, 1964.

"Wallops Set To Launch Latest Langley Satellite", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Nov. 2, 1964.

"Langley Center Delays Launching Of Air Density-Injun Explorer-B", source unknown and "Second British Satellite Launched", Times Herald, Newport News, Va., Mon., Nov. 16, 1964.

"Three Delta Launchings To Be Delayed", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Thurs., Nov. 19, 1964.

Dedication and Opening Ceremonies of the First Facilities Developed in the Hampton Industrial Research Center, November 20, 1964 Booklet, City of Hampton, Virginia.

"NASA Experiment: Scout Lifts Two Satellites Simultaneously Into Orbit", The MESA MISSILEER, Thursday, November 26, 1964.

"Dual Satellites Almost Exactly In Planned Orbit" and "Area NASA Ends Record Month's Work", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Thurs., Nov. 26, 1964 and Times-Herald, Newport News, Tues., Dec. 1, 1964.

"Injun Fired from Base in California" by Otto Knauth, Des Moines Register and Tribune, Sunday, November 29, 1964.

"Italians Trained At Langley To Launch First San Marco Satellite Friday At Wallops" and "Italians Orbit San Marco 1", Daily Press, Newport News, Virginia, Monday Morning, December 7, 1964 and Wednesday Morning, December 16, 1964.

"Soars Into Orbit On Space Radiation Measuring Mission" by Howard Benedict, Times-Herald, Newport News, Mon., Dec. 21, 1964.

"Shots of the Week", missiles and rockets: The Weekly of Space Systems Engineering, December 21, 1964.

"The United States Air Force Blue Scout Program", Source Unknown.

"Bravo! Viva Italia!: Wallops Island Resounds As First Italian Space Craft Soars Skyward", The Washington Post, Sunday, Feb. 21, 1965.

"Chincoteague Calls Italian Scientist 'Citizen'", The New York Times, Monday, March 8, 1965.

"Chincoteague Gives 'Citizenship' To Space Scientist From Italy" Continued, The New York Times, Monday, March 8, 1965.

"New Space Radio Blackout Reentry Experiments Slated", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Tues., March 30, 1965.

"Explorer Reset For Launching", Times-Herald, Newport News, Mon., April 19, 1965.

"Launch At Wallops Places Survey Satellite In Orbit" (Launched August 10, 1965), Unknown Source.

"New THRUST For The Scout Booster", Richard W. Larrick, "United Aircraft Quarterly Bee-Hive", Fall 1965

"7 Years Under NASA Productive At Center", Allsbuler, Ben. Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Sat., Oct. 2, 1965.

"Langley's Scout Project Office Cited By NASA", Unknown Source.

"Exceptional Scientific Achievement: Edward Garrick Is Honored At NASA Awards Ceremony", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Fri., Oct. 29, 1965.

"Langley Plans Purchase Of 12 More Scouts" and "French Satellite Orbited By Scout", Daily Press, December 8, 1965.

"Successful Launch - Scout Vehicle S-140", LTV Astronautics Division Quality and Reliability Assurance Bulletin, December 22, 1965.

"NASA Tests Set On Feb. 9 For Spacecraft Heat Shield", The Times-Herald, Newport News, Virginia, Friday Morning, January 28, 1966.

"Heat Test Shot Fired At Wallops", The Times-Herald, Newport News, Virginia, Thursday, Feb. 10, 1966.

"Spacecraft Heat Shield Test Is Called Success", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Fri., Feb. 11, 1966.

"Space Scientists Praised By Pope", The Catholic Standard (The Diocesan newspaper in Washington, D.C.), February 15, 1966.

"Other Countries In The Space Race", Levitt, Dr. I. M. The Daily Press, Newport News-Hampton, Va., Sunday, Feb. 20, 1966.

"San Marco Project Group Has Audience With Pope", Jacobs, Ken. LTV News, March 18, 1966.

"Scout Re-Entry Launch 15th Straight Success", LTV News, Vol. 5, No. 6, March 18, 1966.

"The Platform for the Italian San Marco Satellite Has Left La Spezia", Il Progresso, New York, March 28, 1966.

"Wallops Island Satellite Aiding Radiation Study", Daily Press, Newport News, Va., Tues., June 14, 1966.

"Italian Satellite Scientists", McAda, Bill. Dallas Times Herald, Friday, August 26, 1966.

"Italians Check Out LTV Rocket Here", McAda, Bill. Dallas Times Herald, Friday, August 26, 1966.

"Langley Center Managed Rocket Shot Ties Record", Altshuler, Ben. The Times-Herald, Newport News, Virginia, Saturday Morning, October 29, 1966.

"Boeing in Space: Burner II", Boeing Space Division. Unknown Source.

"Five At Research Center Are Cited", Unknown Source.

Scout Mission Profiles, Vought Missiles and Space Company, Dallas, Texas.

"Scout Project Moves Into New Home", Daily Press, Newport News, Virginia, Saturday Morning, March 11, 1972.

"Profile: Scout Soars With New Engine" and "'Scout Really Scoots'", by Paul Bower, September, 1972, p. 8, Unknown Source.

"the SCOUT launch vehicle system", 23rd International Astronautical Congress, Vienna, October 8-15, 1972, presented by M. Green, Vice President, Programs LTV Aerospace Corporation.

"Scout Sets Launch Record", LTV News Release, November 2, 1972.

"BLAST OFF! (They Hope)", coastline/adrian grimwood, SUNDAY NATION, November 12, 1972.

"Countdown starts at noon for blast-off", Daily Nation, Wednesday, November 15, 1972.

"NASA Satellite To Study Rays", Daily Press, Newport News, Virginia, Thursday Morning, November 16, 1972.

"NASA To Orbit ESRO Satellite For Europeans", Daily Press, Newport News, Virginia, Friday Morning, November 17, 1972.

"Whoosh!-San Marco launched another satellite" East African Standard, No. 18201, Nairobi, Friday, November 17, 1972.

"Scout Sets Launch Record", Daily Press, Newport News, Virginia, Monday Morning, November 27, 1972.

"Scout Sets New Successful Consecutive Launch Record", A perspective of news and events affecting employees of LTV Aerospace Corporation, Vol. IV, No. 13, December, 1972.

"New Scout Project Office Opened at Langley Center", Unknown Source.

"Over 850 Staff Members Attend Wallops Launch", Unknown Source.

Scout Launch Vehicle Photo, Daily Press, Newport News, Virginia, Tuesday Morning, January 2, 1973.

"Stoney Named To New NASA Post" and "Congratulations, NASA", Daily Press, Newport News, Virginia, Monday Morning, January 15, 1973.

"NASA GE Sign Contract", The Times-Herald, Newport News, Virginia, Friday, February 9, 1973.

"Late '72 Scout launches showing excellent results", PROFILE, LTV Aerospace Corporation, Vol. V, No. 5, May, 1973, p. 7.

"Last Scout rocket lifts off", Florida Today, May 9, 1994.

"NASA Launches Last Scout Rocket on Military Mission". Reuter, May 9, 1994.

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"Scout: The Unsung Hero of Space" Interviews

"Scout: The Unsung Hero of Space" Interviews Supplement

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