Viking Archives Collection

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Back Arrow.jpg Langley Archives Collection Back Arrow.jpg Viking History Narrative


Contents

[top] Anniversary: 15th

1991 Annual Anniversary for everyone participated in Viking. Listing of addresses, contact information, and office locations. Documents will be scanned in the future.


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[top] Anniversary: 30th

Save the Date
Save the Date and reverse

Annual anniversary was held on June 22, 2006. The day began with a technical conference at Langley followed by a diner at the Virginia Air and Space Museum, Hampton, VA. Prior to the event, a more detailed circular was distributed.

A special fact sheet was prepared for the anniversary to summarize Viking: Trailblazer for all Mars Research.

People who worked on the project were located and invited, many of which were able to attend. Additionally, many speakers, session chairs, and NASA Headquarters personnel were invited.

Group Shot2006-1075.jpg2006-1085.jpgNorm Crabill2006-1131.jpg2006-1132.jpgLesa Roe2006-1156.jpg2006-1166.jpg2006-1182.jpgEdgar CortrightBob KraemerMilton Holt, Hatch WrotonKurt Severance, Darrell JanLeo Daspit2006-1209.jpgBeverly and Neil Holmberg2006-1212.jpg2006-1214.jpg2006-1215.jpg2006-1216.jpgEdgar CortrightGus GuastaferroDave Carter2006-1229.jpgMilton Holt2006-1231.jpgPage YoungRay & Julie Arvidson, Al KullasShelley Spears2006-1265.jpgPeggy & John Newcomb, John Buckley (center)Frank PlottTed GerusDel Freeman, Cindy LeeMel & Peggy AndersonRalph Wilson, June WrotonKurt SeveranceIris Max, Andrew Crakin (?), Bruce Goodson2006-1284.jpgMelsande Womack-Smith, A. CarterConway SnyderPat & Bob NurrayMichelle & Rob CallowayBob Tolson2006-1317.jpg2006-1320.jpgAnne & Bob Kraemer,Mary Beth Taback, Peggy AndersonJohn Casani, Edgar CortrightDel Freeman, Lesa Roe


[top] Bicentennial Activities

Information for the Bicentennial Symbol on the Viking landers. Three symbols one on the RTG #2 Wind Cover, one on the RTG #1 Wind Cover, and one on the back of the high-gain antenna.


[top] Biographies of Project Personnel

Short biographies prepared by the Viking Team


Arvidson, Ray

Casani, John

Cooke, Doug

Crabill, Norm

Greeley, Ron

Hinners, Noel

Lee, Gentry

Levine, Joel

Manning, Rob

McCuistion, Doug

Meyer, Michael

Roe, Lesa

Taback, Israel

Young, Tom

[top] Boom Analysis

Monthly Progress Report 1. December 31 to December 30, 1971. SDRL No. 2. January 12, 1972. Report No. 24-PR-004-6.

Viking Boom Assembly. Test Report Ball Bearing Lubricant Study Program. November 1971. Document NO.24-EN-011.

Viking Boom Stress and Dynamic Analysis Report.September3,1971. SDRL NO.40.

Viking Boom 1st Quarterly Review Presentation Charts September 23 1971.

Viking Boom 2nd Quarterly Review Presentation Charts December 8, 1971.


[top] Camera

1972 Prototype camera developed for use by Viking.

Skolaut to Douglas. 1999 letter from researcher Milton Skolaut to Deborah Douglas regarding the prototype Viking camera. Also refers to magnetic tapes which were returned to JPL in 2014.

Prototype CameraLaRC Rockwell Aero Commander photographed by prototype cameraMartian surface at soil sample site

[top] Coin

A commemorative coin for Viking was struck in 1976. It was 1 troy ounce 0.999 fine silver. The reverse read "This medallion contains material from Viking which landed on Mars July 20, 1976." Value in 2016 was $149.

1976 Coin

[top] Tie Tack

IMG 6616.JPG

[top] Documents

[top] Contract Notes

[top] Correspondence, General

Provide the addressees with a brief summary of the experience gained during the operation of the Viking guest operations from the time the viking guest center opened June 1,1976 until its closure on September 4, 1976.

[top] Meeting Notes

[top] Memos

Availability of LaRC Test Setup With Mars Environmental Capability. Leonard V. Clark. March 5, 1973. 159(PM-8324-LVC)

DTA Biology PDA Utilization In Special Sample Processing/Distribution Tests. D.S. Crouch. October 14, 1973.

Engineering Report on the Biology Soil Acquisition Processing and Distribution System Test. From: C.H. Debenham. To: P.V. Fennesey. July 23-July 28 INC., at MMA. C.H. Debenham. August 16, 1973. #4168 73.4763.4-38

Guest and Protocol Activity Policy At Launch or During Major Manned and Unmanned Space Missions. John P. Donelley, Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs. June 27, 1975.

Nominations for Guest Invitations- Viking A Launch. John P. Donelley. May 23, 1975

Northern Latitude Landing Site Evaluation Test. J. Gliozzi. June 11, 1973.

Origin of the name Viking. Korycinski to Emme. 9-3-1969.

Perma-Frost Testing. H.C. Wroton, Martin Marietta. August 18, 1973. NAS1-9000,GCMS LPA/PDA 73-Y-91376

Test Plan for the Performance Evaluation of the Viking Soil Systems. J. Gliozzi, K. Elliot., John Timbrook. June 8, 1973. NAS1-9000.

Test Report on Passive Sand & Dust Collection of the Viking Biology, Gas Chromatograph and X-Ray Fluorence Collector Assemblies. J. Giliozzi. April 10, 1974.

Transmission of Investigation Description Forms. Cary R. Spitzer. November 8, 1970. PM-4021-CRS

Viking Primary Mission Surface Sampler Operations. Viking Project Manager. G.C. Broome. Feburary 15, 1977. Samp-20132-LVC.

Viking Project Audio-Visual Support Plan. Phil Neuhauser. December 10, 1976. Interoffice Memo.

Viking Student Contest. John P. Donelley. February 13,1975

Viking Surface Sampler and Inorganic Analysis Experiment Elements. D.S. Crouch. August 28, 1972. SI-589-72.

Visual Aids to be used at News Briefings. Rodger K. Waldman. April 28, 1976. PASO-16216-RKW


[top] Mission Status Reports and Bulletins

Dates:1970-1975

Description: Weekly status reports to the Viking Program Office (VPO) to James S. Martin, Jr. from Clarence A. Robbins. Filed by month and year.

1 July 1975: Viking Launch and Cruise Mission Events

Mission Status Bulletin No. 30, 25 June 1976

Mission Status Bulletin, 10 September 1976


[top] News Clippings

The following is a compilation of news clippings regarding the Viking Project from 1971-1978.

Daily Press Articles


[top] News Releases, 1968-1975

[top] Publications, NASA

Birthplace of the Future. Langley Research Center. Hampton, Virginia

Catalog of Viking Mission Data. Robert W. Vostreys. May 1978 NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 78-01

Chemistry. Johnathan Eberhart, Jeff C. Davis Jr., and Ronald P. D'Amelia. November 1977

Conclusion of Viking Lander Imaging Investigation. Picture Catalog of Experiment Data Record. Stephen D. Wall and Teresa C. Ashmore. March 1985. NASA Reference Publication 1137.

Flight Tests of Viking Parachute System. Richard J. Bendura, Reginald R. Lundstrom, Philip G. Renfrow, and Stewart R. McCoy. 1974. NASA TN D-7734.

Handbook of the Physical Properties of the Planet Mars. C.M. Muchaux. 1967. NASA SP-3030.

Images Of Mars The Viking Extended Mission. Micheal H. Carr and Nancy Evans. March 1980. NASA SP-444

Physical Properties of the Surface Materials at the Viking Landing Sites on Mars. H.J. Moore, R.E. Hutton, G.D. Glow, and C.R. Spitzer.

Phobos: Close Encounter Imaging from The Viking Orbiters. Thomas C. Duxbury, John D. Callahan, Adrianna C. Ocampo. July 1984

Mars as Viewed by Mariner 9: S Pictorial Presentation. 1974. NASA SP-329.

Mars: The Viking Discoveries. Bevan M. French. October 1977. EP-146

NASA Activities. September 1976. Vol.7 NO.9

NASA Facts The Viking Mission. NF-62/6-75

NASA Facts Mars As A Member of The Solar System. NF-59/12-75.

Space World Still Waiting. National Space Society. July 1986. Vol. W-7-271.

Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience. The Lunar Geoscience Working Group. NASA SP-484

Surveyor 1 A Preliminary Report. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA SP-126

Titan 11E/Centaur D-1T System Summary. NAS 3-13514 NAS 3-16082 September 1973. Report No. CASD-LVP73-007.

The Difficult Road to Mars: S Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union. V.G. Perminov. 1999. NASA Monographs in Aerospace History No. 15. NP-1999-06-251-HQ.

The Martian Landscape. The Viking Lander Imaging Team. NASA SP-425. April 1978

The Many Faces of Mars. December 1973.

The Mosaics of Mars As seen by the Viking Lander Cameras. Elliot C. Levinthal and Kenneth L. Jones. September, 1980. Grant NSG-7538.

The NASA Mars Conference. Duke B. Reiber. Volume 71 ISBN 0-87703-294-7

The New Mars: The Discoveries of Mariner 9. William K. Hartman and Odell Raper. 1974. NASA SP-337.

The Photomosaic Globe of Mars.

The Viking Mission to Mars. William R. Corliss. 1974. NASA SP-334.

The Viking Seismometery Final Report. NASA Office of Space Science. Contract NAS7-100. Report 3408. April 1981.

The "Wet Slug" Tantalum Capacitor. Donald E. Pizzeck, and A.G Price. December 1973.

TRW Mars Viking.

Viking. Viking-Mars: Anatomy of Success. Mission Status Bulletin.

Viking 1: Early Results. NASA. 1976. NASA SP-408.

Viking and The search for Life on Mars

Viking Encounter Press Kit. NASA. Nicholas Panagakos, and Maurice Parker. No: 76-103

Viking Extended Mission Personnel Directory. August 1977 VEM-010 Issue 3

Viking Intellect and Ingenuity Triumphant. Number Three 1976.

Viking Lander "As Built" Performance Capabilities. June 1976. NAS1-9000.

Viking Lander Imaging Investigation During Extended and Continuation Automatic Missions Volume 1 - Lander Picture Catalog of Experiment Data Record. Kenneth L. Jones, Mary Henshaw, Christe McMenonmy, Andres Robles, Paul C. Scribner, Stephen D. Wall, and Jackson W. Wilson. April W. Wilson.

Viking Lander Imaging Investigation Picture Catalog of Primary Mission Experiment Data Record. Robert B. Tucker February, 1978. NASA Reference Publication 1007.

Viking Lander System Primary Mission Performance Report. C.G. Cooley, and J.G. Lewis. April 1977. NASA CR-145148

Viking Mars Expedition 1976.

Viking Mission to mars. Titan/Centaur-3 and -4 Launch Mission Summary and Terminal Countdown. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center.

Viking Press Handbook. NASA. Nicholas Panagakos, Maurice Parker, and William Der Bing. No:076-116

Viking Project Mission to Mars! Viking Project Bulletin Special Issue. The Color of Mars. December, 1976

Viking Project Mission to Mars Viking-1 Mission Timeline. June 7, 1976 Rev 1

Viking Site Selection and Certification. NASA Langley Research Center. NASA SP-429

Viking The Exploration of Mars.

Viking 1 Early Results. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA SP-408

Viking '75 Dictionary of Viking Acronyms.

Viking '75 Viking Flight Team Organization and Staffing. NASA Langley Research Center. January 30, 1976. M75-150-4

Viking '75 Spacecraft Design and Test Summary Volume 1-Lander Design. Neil A. Holmberg, Robert P. Faust, and H. Milton Holt. November, 1980. NASA Reference Publication 1027.

Viking '75 Spacecraft Design and Test Summary Volume 2-Orbiter Design. Neil A. Holmberg, Robert P. Faust, and H. Milton Holt. November, 1980. NASA Reference Publication 1027.

Viking '75 Spacecraft Design and Test Summary Volume 3-Engineering Test Summary. Neil A. Holmberg, Robert P. Faust, and H. Milton Holt. November, 1980. Reference Publication 1027.

Viking '75 Summary Of Primary Mission Surface Sampler Operations. L.V. Clark, D.S. Crouch, and R.D. Grossart. July 20-November2, 1976. VFT-019

Why Man Explores. NASA Langley Research Center. July 2, 1976

[top] Publications, Outside NASA

A Sampling of Viking Cartoons. Los Angeles Times. August 9, 1976-Part IV. NO.10

Are the Soviets Ahead in Space? National Geographic, Vol. 170, No.4. October 1986. pp 420-459.

Aviation Week & Space Technology. A McGraw-Hill Publication

Bibliography of Viking Mars Science. Conway W. Snyder. May 18, 1978. Samp- 22648-CWS.

Digital imagery analysis of unusual Martian Surface Features. Mark J. Carlotto. Applied Optics Vol. 27, No. 10, May 15, 1988.

Planetary Explorer: The Emigrant Trail. General Dynamics Space Systems Division. 1988.

Scientific Results Of The Viking Project. Journal Of GeoPhysical Research. ISBN 0-87590-207-3

Six Articles. Carl Sagan. April 30, 1976. NO: 76-74

[top] Emblems

Pictures and news letters of the Viking emblem. When Viking spacecraft touched down on the surface of Mars it bore the emblem designed by a high school student winning the contest.


Paul Purol with emblem at KSC display


From the Baltimore Sun:

WAY BACK WHEN: Local man's artwork is out of this world
January 10, 2004 By Frederick N. Rasmussen,SUN STAFF
(http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2004-01-10/features/0401100374_1_viking-lander-figurehead-earth)

The three-dimensional color images sent to Earth from Mars by NASA's Spirit rover bring back warm memories for an Abingdon resident. When Peter Paul Purol III steps out into the chill of a winter's night and looks skyward, he is comforted by the knowledge that a piece of his artistic handiwork is still quietly resting on the Red Planet's Chryse Plain, 23 degrees north latitude. Purol, an unabashed fan of outer space and science fiction, was a 17-year-old student at Patapsco Senior High School and Dundalk Vocational Technical Center when he entered a 1975 national competition sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

The agency was seeking designs for a mission logo that would grace the flanks of the its Viking Lander scheduled to land on Mars in 1976.

Descended from a family of artists, Purol has been drawing all of his life."I remember in the third grade, I was a fan of Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, and I was always drawing the submarine with a friend," he told The Sun in a 1975 interview."He just kept up with it," said his mother, Sonia Purol. "He drew a lot of dinosaurs and a lot of space ships."

As a youngster, Purol immersed himself in books and read everything he could about outer space and NASA. His interpretation of Mars was refined by photos sent to earth by earlier space probes. "It's a dusty surface, mostly craters," he told The Sun. His grandmother gave him a telescope in the 1960s, and he spent many evenings in the backyard of his boyhood home in Dundalk, staring into the celestial blackness.

Viking Emblems on Lander 1
In his submission to NASA, young Purol explained his design of combining Norsemen with the Viking Lander."The main features consist of a flagged mast, sail and a figurehead - the letter `V' serving to form the figurehead. To further relate the two, the style of the word `Viking' has been rendered with a certain Scandinavian quality," he wrote. Other features of the logo include the Earth, moon and American flag. The Viking's dish-antenna is turned toward Earth, "eager to reveal its findings to us," he wrote.

When Edward P. Dyson, his commercial design teacher at the Dundalk center, learned that his student's design had been selected by NASA, he said, "I just said it's a helluva design. I had no doubt that he would win it." "I really had an excellent time back then. And when it came, it was a little overwhelming," said Purol, 45, now a pre-print technician at Consolidated Printing Co. in Abingdon.

On July, 20, 1976, the Viking came to rest on Mars after a 10-month journey from Earth. Twenty-five seconds after making contact with the surface of the planet, it began transmitting images earthward. "They flew me out to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., and I was there to see the incoming shots from the Viking. And you could see my emblem beneath the U.S. Flag and Bicentennial logo," said Purol. "The photos came very slowly, but I remember the time. It was 2:30 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time on Mars. The date was July 26, 1976."

After graduating from high school in 1976, Purol served in the Navy as a gas turbine mechanic aboard the USS Elliot, a destroyer, until being discharged in 1983. While in the Navy, he continued applying his artistic talents to various projects. "When I was in boot camp in Orlando, Fla., I designed our company flag," he said.

After returning to Baltimore, he earned an associate's degree in graphic design from the then-Dundalk Community College, and has worked continually in the business for the last 20 years. "I still enjoy doing space art and draw such things as planetary bodies, star fields and colorful nebula," he said. "If I had a chance to go to the moon - for that matter anywhere in space - I'd go in a heartbeat. After all, I don't want to go there as dust," he said, laughing.

"The fact that the Viking logo is still out there is cool. I'm still very proud of it. I don't mean to brag but it still comes up in conversation once in a while," said Purol. "And I am still grateful that that I was given the opportunity to design it."

The Viking Lander's ability to send photos and other scientific data defied the expectations of its designers, whose plans called for it to only operate for 90 days. The spacecraft continued to send vital material back to Earth until finally going dark in November of 1982. "I go outside and look up and realize that a small part of me is still out there. And that is so neat," said Purol.

In the photo of the Lander on Mars, the flag of the United States with the rocky Martian surface in the background is seen in this color picture taken on the sixth day of Viking Lander 1 on Mars (July 26). The flag is on the RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) wind screen. Below the flag is the bicentennial logo and the Viking symbol which shows an ancient Viking ship. This Viking symbol was designed by Peter Purol of Baltimore, winner of the Viking logo contest open to high school science students. To the right is the Reference Test Chart used for color balancing of the color images. At the bottom is the GCMS Processor Distribution Assembly with the wind screens unfurled demonstrating that the GCMS cover was deployed properly. The scene in the background is looking almost due west on Mars. The lighter zone at the far horizon is about 3 km (nearly 2 miles) from the Lander. The darker line below this is a hill crest much closer to the Lander (about 200 m or about 650 feet). The picture was taken at local Mars Time of 7:18 A.M., hence the relatively dark sky and the far horizon illuminated by the sun just rising behind the Lander.



[top] Personnel Notes

[top] Project Office (Viking Flight Team)

[top] Project Management

Folder from James S. Martin Jr. The Folder consist of Pictures of Mars captured by Viking Lander 2 and Viking stickers.


[top] Proof Test Launch

[top] Properties, Magnetic

[top] Properties, Physical

From: C. H. Robins Jr. Science Requirements for Lander Footpad Viewing. C. H. Robins Jr. October 4, 1971 PL-3355-CRS

From: C. H. Robins Jr. Science Requirements for Lander Footpad Viewing. C.H. Robins Jr. September 10, 1971Investigation Requirements. James S. Martin Jr. October 14, 1971. M75-123-1

Physical Properties and Magnetic Properties Teams Meeting. Pasadena, California. Cary R. Spitzer. November 17, 1970.

Physical Properties and Magnetic Properties Teams Joint Meeting. Hampton, Virginia. Cary r. Spitzer. April 20, 1971.

Team Meeting. California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California. Cary R. Spitzer. July 10, 1972.Team Meeting California Institute of Technology. Cary. R. Spitzer November 28, 1973.

Team Meeting. Flagstaff Arizona Lowell Observatory Planetary Research Center. Cary R. Spitzer. June 9-10, 1971.

Team Meeting. Martin Marietta Aerospace Denver. Colorado. Cary R. Spitzer. September 19, 1973.

Team Meeting Redondo Beach and Pasadena, California. Cary R. Spitzer. March 13-14, 1972.

Team Meeting Denver, Colorado. Cary R. Spitzer. July 18-21.

To: Mr. Frank W. McCabe. Additional Information Regarding Budgetary Cost Estimate for Physical Properties Investigation Requirements. Cary R. Spitzer. June 16, 1971. 3-144.

To: Frank W. McCabe. NASA Contract NAS1-9000 Transmission of M75-123-1 Mission Definition, Addendum No. 1 Physical Properties Investigation Requirements

Mission 1-2. Reports on The Penetration of Footpad 2, magnetic properties and surface properties. From: Physical Properties team. To: General Distribution.


[top] Stamp Ceremony

[top] Surface Sampler

A Parametric Study of The Structural/Mech Properties Furlable BOOM. Feb 2, 1970.R. Seger. Ver 27.

Clifton and Airesearch Gear Motors Test Report. July 9, 1971. D.G. Macumber. 0451/90-71-V5

Surface Sampler Element Test Plan/Report (Auger Comminuter No.1) April 7, 1970. Test Plan June 30, 1970. Test Report R. Seger J. Timbrook.

Surface Sampler Test Plan/Report (Auger Comminuter No.2). Test Plan July 24, 1970. Test Report December 23, 1970. Ver 60-2-3.

Surface Sampler Backhoe Shape Test. January 26, 1972. John Timbrook. Ver 60-4-2.

Surface Sampler Element Test Plan/Report Fixed and Movable Jaw Collector. May 13, 1970. Ver-60-1-1.

Surface Sampler Element Test Plan/Report Distributor Hopper Feed Rates- Preliminary.Test Plan May 26,1970. Test Report August 1970. R. Seger J. Timbrook

Surface Sampler Subsystem Design Review Status. April 1971. D.S. Crouch. L.K. Schwab. R.B. Seger. Ver-60-2-3.

Surface Sample Sampler The Effects of Increasing the Extended Length of The Furlable Boom to a Maximum of 20 Feet. October 9, 1970. R.B.Seger.

Surface Sampler Element Test Plan/Report (Auger Comminuter No.1) April 7, 1970. Test Plan June 30, 1970. Test Report R. Seger, J. Timbrook.

Memorandum Review Group to Project Manager. December 26, 1973. 159(PM-9324-TNB).

Methods to increase Accessible Surface Sampling Area. March 31,1970. R. Seger. Ver 42.

Viking Trade Study Potentiometers Vs Shaft Encoder for Surface Sampler Subsystem. June 1970 TN-3706001

A spare Surface Sampler is in the Langley Exhibits Collection. The unit has been photographed and measured by Tom Dahl, and this information is available on his website.

Feasibility Study for A Soil Sampler for Viking Vehicle. H.R. Warren. March 1969. Spar-TM.654.

Sand and Dust Testing of the Viking Surface Sampler Acquisition Assembly(SSAA) in A Simulated Mars Dust Storm. Paul V. Fennessey. April 30, 1974

Sand and Dust Testing of Viking Sampler and X-Ray Components at McDonnell Aircraft Company. Douglas P. Diederich. December 14, 1973. 0451/90-73-V4

Soil Properties Study. Hom-Yim Ko. October 15, 1971. Ver-181.

Soil Dispersion Testing Estimate. Mr. Nolan I. Jones. January 30, 1974. 74-Y-90128.

Test Report on XRFS Gravel Delivery and XRFS Funnel/SSAA Interference Testing. Douglas Getchell, Martin Marietta Coporation Denver Division. September 16, 1974.

Wind Dispersion Test for the X-Ray Fluorescence Investigation. January 24, 1974 Scientist Test Manager. 159(PM-10098-AFC).


[top] Timeline Launches and Landing

[top] Viking Float-Rose Bowl

A parade saluting America's Space Program and featuring the Viking mission to Mars in Pasadena, CA.


[top] Viking '75 Project

Spacecraft Operations Handbook Volumes 1-4

Viking '75 Project Backup Surface Sampler Study Motor- Launched Surface Sampler. June 1971. M.L. Clevett, W.C. Burkitt, B.Mckown. TN-3770112

Viking '75 Project Qualification Test Report Biology Processor and Distribution Assembly Viking Surface Sampler System. December 1974. W.J. O'Connor, M.Robinson W.Harvey. TN-3720496

Viking '75 Project Backup Surface Sampler System Study. April 1971. D.S. Crouch, W.R. Britton, D.A. Lewis. TN-3770098

Viking '75 Project Backup Surface Sampler Study Passive Wind-Blown Dust Collector. May 1971. M.L. Clevett, D.S. Crown. TN-3770109.


[top] Photo Gallery

[top] Awards

This Scientific Achievement Award was presented to the Viking Project Team.

AAAS Cleveland Prize Medal

[top] Personnel

This collection of photos includes personnel and activities.

Israel Taback, Father of the Viking LanderIsrael TabackWilliam J. BoyerJohn Newcomb, 1967Bill Moyer, John Newcomb, George Lawrence, John HoosJohn GrahamE. Burton Lightner, 1969Burt Lightner, 1991Norm Crabill, 19691993 Norm Crabill, 1993Gerry SoffenJim MartinCliff NelsonGus GuastaferroGus Guastaferro, 19771974-L-05977.jpg1974-L-05978.jpgL-R Barney Farmer, Lou Kingsland, Conway Snyder, 4 unknowns, Gentry Lee1974-L-07149.jpgL-R Barney Farmer, Conway Snyder, 3 unknowns, Gentry Leecenter Hal Masursky1974-L-07152.jpgL-R Barney Farmer, Lou Kingsland, Conway SnyderL-r unknown, Jim Porter, Norm Crabill, Tom Young, Gerry Soffen1974-L-07155.jpgRobert H. Tolson


Collection of Photos from John Newcomb

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[top] Viking at Martin Marietta Aerospace (MMA) Denver

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[top] Launch Preparations at Kennedy Space Center in 1975

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[top] Launch Photos

1975

L-75-5544.jpgL-75-6851.jpgL-75-6845.jpgL-75-6848.jpgL-75-6849.jpgL-75-6856.jpg1975-L-07180.jpgL-75-7186.jpgL-75-7187.jpgL-75-7189.jpgL-75-7190.jpgL-75-7195.jpgL-75-7196.jpg

[top] Low-Altitude Mosaic

1979

[top] Mars

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[top] Mars Surface

This collection of photos was distributed through NASA Langley Research Center.

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This collection of photos was distributed by the Viking News Center, Pasadena, California.

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[top] Press Coverage

Langley Press people watching Viking I landing.NASA Langley Activities BuildingLangley employees watching Viking I landing.

[top] Venus Surface

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[top] Viking Lander, Orbiter, and Space Vehicle Configuration

D6D5 Integrated Biology Instrument.jpgD6E2 Meteorology Boom and Sensors Deployed Configuration.jpgDGA Viking Landed Science Configuration.jpgE-2 Viking Mission Sequence.jpgE-9A Viking at Mars Orbit Insertion.jpgEarth from Viking.jpgF-1 Viking Space Vehicle Configuration.jpgF-4 Viking Spacecraft Exploded View.jpgG3G1 Viking Surface Sampler Head Diagram.jpgG3H Lander Instruments Deployed and Stowed.jpgFirst View of Mars from Orbiter 1One of the last views of Mars from Viking Orbiter 2 taken 07191980American Bicentennial Emblem on Viking Orbiter 1American Bicentennial Emblem on Viking Orbiter 1 (color)Viking Lander Drawing (1)Viking Lander Drawing (2)
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